We examined the reduction of different size hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (average diameter of 11, 12, 30, 43, and 99 nm) by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB), Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, to determine how S. oneidensis MR-1 may utilize these environmentally relevant solid-phase electron acceptors. The surface-area-normalized-bacterial Fe(III) reduction rate for the larger nanoparticles (99 nm) was one order of magnitude higher than the rate observed for the smallest nanoparticles (11 nm). The Fe(III) reduction rates for the 12, 30, and 43 nm nanoparticles fell between these two extremes. Whole-cell TEM images showed that the mode of Fe2O3 nanoparticle attachment to bacterial cells was different for the aggregated, pseudo-hexagonal/irregular and platey 11, 12, and 99 nm nanoparticles compared to the non-aggregated 30 and 43 nm rhombohedral nanoparticles. Due to differences in aggregation, the 11, 12, and 99 nm nanoparticles exhibited less cell contact and less cell coverage than did the 30 and 43 nm nanoparticles. We hypothesize that S. oneidensis MR-1 employs both indirect and direct mechanisms of electron transfer to Fe(III)-oxide nanoparticles and that the bioreduction mechanisms employed and Fe(III) reduction rates depend on the nanoparticles’ aggregation state, size, shape and exposed crystal faces.