Atmospheric processing of carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs) may play an important role in determining their fate and environmental impacts. This work investigates the reaction between aerosolized C60 and atmospherically relevant mixing ratios of O3 at differing levels of humidity. Results indicate that C60 is oxidized by O3 and forms a variety of oxygen-containing functional groups on the aerosol surface, including C60O, C60O2, and C60O3. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate between C60 and O3 ranges from 9 × 10–6 to 2 × 10–5 s–1. The reaction is likely to be limited to the aerosol surface. Exposure to O3 increases the oxidative stress exerted by the C60 aerosols as measured by the dichlorofluorescein acellular assay but not by the uric acid, ascorbic acid, glutathione, or dithiothreitol assays. The initial prevalence of C60O and C60O2 as intermediate products is enhanced at higher humidity, as is the surface oxygen content of the aerosols. These results show that C60 can be oxidized when exposed to O3 under ambient conditions, such as those found in environmental, laboratory, and industrial settings.